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  • Demographics of BoliviaDatum13.03.2023 11:18
    Thema von MartinRoberts im Forum Baden-Württemberg

    The total population of Bolivia is 11,215,674 people. The people of Bolivia speak the Spanish, Uru, Aymara and Puquina languages. The linguistic diversity of Bolivia is vaguely diverse according to a fractionation scale, which is 0.224 for Bolivia. The average age is about 23.4 years. Life expectancy in Bolivia is 68. Female fertility rate in Bolivia is 3.2. Around 18% of the population of Bolivia is obese. Ethnic diversity is quite diverse according to a fractionation scale, which for Bolivia is 0.7396. Details of the language, religion, age, gender distribution and advancement of the people of Bolivia can be found in the sections below, as well as the section on education in the country.

    In Bolivia, the population density is 9.46 people per square kilometer (25 per square mile). Based on these statistics, this country is considered very sparsely populated. The total population of Bolivia is 11,215,674 people. Bolivia has approximately 154,330 foreign immigrants. Immigrants in Bolivia make up 0.1 percent of the total number of immigrants worldwide. Immigrants in Bolivia make up 1.4 percent of the total number of immigrants worldwide. The ethnic diversity of Bolivia is quite diverse according to a fractionation scale based on ethnicity. Ethnic Fractionation (EF) deals with the number, size, socioeconomic distribution, and geographic location of diverse cultural groups, usually within a state or some other demarcated area. Specific cultural characteristics can refer to language, skin color, religion, ethnicity, customs and traditions, history, or other distinctive criteria, alone or in combination. These characteristics are often used for social exclusion and power monopolization. The index of ethnic fractionation in Bolivia is 0.7396. This means that there is a relatively high number of unique ethnic groups in Bolivia. EF is usually measured as 1 minus the Herfindahl concentration index of ethnolinguistic group proportions, which reflects the probability that two randomly drawn individuals from the population belong to different groups. The theoretical maximum of EF of 1 means that each person belongs to a different group. Below you will find statistics for Bolivia on the average age and gender distribution at different ages.

    The average age is about 23.4 years. The average age of men is 22.6 years and the average age of women is 24.1 years.

    The sex ratio, or number of males per female (estimated at birth), is 1.05. It can be further broken down into the following categories: sex ratio below 15 - 1.04; sex ratio from 15 to 64 - 0.96; sex ratio over 64 - 0.79; Overall sex ratio - 0.98. The overall sex ratio differs from the sex ratio estimated at birth. This is because some newborns are included in the sex ratio estimated at birth, but die within the first few weeks of life and are not included in the overall sex ratio.

    The majority religion in Bolivia is Christianity, whose adherents make up 93.9% of all religious believers in the country. Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the largest religion in the world with over 2.4 billion followers known as Christians. Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the Savior of mankind, whose coming as Christ or Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. In addition to Christianity, there are some followers of folk religions in Bolivia. Bolivia's religious diversity is vaguely diverse according to a fractionation scale based on the number of religions in Bolivia. The index of religious fractionation in Bolivia is 0.2085. This score means that within the country there is a major belief with a few other subordinate beliefs.

  • Limited liability companyDatum27.02.2023 17:10
    Thema von MartinRoberts im Forum Baden-Württemberg

    A limited liability company (hereafter referred to as an LLC) is a commercial company type with legal personality status. One of the major features and benefits of any LLC is the fact that shareholders can’t be held personally responsible for the company’s debts or liabilities — only the assets of the business itself are at risk. A major difference between a joint-stock company and an LLC is that the latter is always a close company and its shares are not publicly traded.

  • Thema von MartinRoberts im Forum Baden-Württemberg

    Given that within the European Union there are no withholding taxes on IP royalties between member states, we can suggest a number of countries where royalties are particularly beneficial.

    The intellectual property royalties tax regime in Cyprus has changed as a result of the recommendations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Action Report 5 and the Ecofin Council conclusions published on 8 December 2015. Legislation has been changed to limit the companies that can benefit from research and development (R&D) exemptions, but the tax rate in Cyprus is still one of the most favorable in the EU for foreign companies using Cyprus intellectual property want to license -resident companies (intermediaries), where this right is then sub-licensed to the end user. Overall, the effective tax on IP royalty income should be less than 2.5%.

    In 2015 Ireland introduced an effective corporation tax rate of 6.25% on intellectual property income based on an allowance for research and development costs borne by the company. By linking the two components in this way, Irish law encourages companies to conduct R&D directly within the EU - leading to the creation of intellectual property - while discouraging them from acquiring licenses without directly committing to R&D.

    Belgium has introduced a tax system that favors those with income from acquired copyrights. This tax regime can have many different applications and can be used to protect artworks as well as a useful tax break for IT developers. Income from IP rights royalties is taxed at 15%. This income is not taken into account when calculating social security contributions. In addition, these taxes are reduced by 50% for imports due to the application of standard import costs. The first €15,000 that a copyright owner earns in a year is therefore taxed at 7.5%, and the next €15,000 at 11.25%. This tax system applies to people with a total annual income of up to 56,450 euros.

    Since 2010, IP income has been taxed at only 5% in the Netherlands. Except for patents, there is no income limit. Patent holders can actually have access to this tax regime if their share of the expected revenue is between 30% and 70%, taking into account the total combined revenue from patents and other sources. These rates also apply to foreign companies owning intangible assets or companies that have received research and development accreditation from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs if they are owners of software IP or trade secrets. The only other caveat to this favorable tax regime is that it doesn't apply to marketing and branding-related assets.

    In general, corporate tax in Luxembourg is 29.22%, but for IP licensing income it can be as low as 5.8%. This is due to an 80% corporate income tax exemption. Interestingly, this exemption also applies to companies that have registered a patent for use in connection with their own business, which then calculate a notional net income as if they had received the licensing income.

    Italy is a larger market compared to the other countries discussed and can be a very attractive place for a company to invest in R&D since 2015 companies have been able to deduct intellectual property income from their taxable income base. The tax deduction was set at 30% in 2015, 40% in 2016 and 50% from 2017. Businesses will therefore enjoy a significant tax rebate by reducing their taxable income.

  • Company business structureDatum14.10.2022 16:24
    Thema von MartinRoberts im Forum Baden-Württemberg

    Before starting a business or even choosing a jurisdiction, you need to plan a corporate structure for your business and based on that determine the purpose of the business you wish to start. It is important to understand the business structure of your company as this will determine the jurisdiction and type of company you choose to best meet your needs.

    A company’s business structure is its primary function within the wider corporate structure of your business. On this basis, we can identify the following company types:

    Trading company
    Online trading company
    Holding company

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